This report provides descriptions of philanthropic responses to a few key events that gained national and international attention over the past 22 years. This report is not a compilation of all that was written; rather it is a
targeted literature review, highlighting a few different retrospectives of six key events. The review focused on implications for philanthropy and its work to advance a racial equity agenda. Most of the publications and articles were funded and/or written by foundations. Racial justice activists’ points of view are included in some of the reports, though not all.
This report was created for the Philanthropic Initiative for Racial Equity’s meeting on September 24, 2014 sponsored by Ford Foundation, Kellogg Foundation, and Open Society Foundation.